Coronavirus :Everything you shall need to know : The Novel Coronavirus or Covid-19 is first emerged in china in the end of December 2019. On December 31, 2019, China alerted the WHO to several cases of unusual pneumonia in the city of Wuhan in China. The virus was unknown at the time.
On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the COVID-19 epidemic a pandemic which has spread to almost all countries since its appearance in China. More than 4.9 million people are infected and more than 327,800 deaths have been recorded, including 3583 in India.
What is a coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause disease in animals. Covid-19 is closely linked to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which swept the world from 2002 to 2003. This virus infected approximately 8,000 people and killed approximately 800, but was largely depleted quickly. Because most of those infected were seriously ill, so it was easier to control.
Another coronavirus is Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the cases of which have occurred sporadically since its onset in 2012 – there have been around 2,500 cases and nearly 900 deaths.
Covid-19 differs from these two other coronaviruses in that the spectrum of the disease is broad, with approximately 80 percent of cases leading to mild infection. Many people can also carry the disease and have no symptoms, which makes it even more difficult to control.
Below you can get the country wise live update on Corona cases Count and Other details like Confirmed Cases, Today Cases, Death, Recovered.
Death Rate in coronavirus (Covid-19) ?
So far, approximately 20% of Covid-19 cases have been classified as “serious” and the current mortality rate varies between 0.7% and 3.4% depending on location and, most importantly, access to good hospital care.
Scientists in China believe that Covid-19 has mutated into two strains, one more aggressive than the other, which could make the development of a vaccine more complicated.
Two strains of the new coronavirus are spreading worldwide, according to an analysis of 103 cases. But the World Health Organization insists that “there is no evidence that the virus has changed”. So how many strains are there and why is it important?
Viruses are always changing, especially RNA viruses like this, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. When a person is infected with the coronavirus, it replicates in their respiratory tract. Whenever this is the case, about half a dozen genetics and their colleagues have studied the viral genome taken from 103 cases, they have found mutations common in two places on the genome. The team identified two types of viruses based on the differences in the genome of these two regions: 72 were considered mutations, says Ian Jones of the University of Reading in the United Kingdom.
When Xiaolu Tang at Peking University in Beijing to be the “type L” and 29 were classified “type S”.
A separate analysis by the team suggests that type L was derived from the old type S. The first strain probably appeared when the virus passed from animals to humans. The second appeared shortly after, says the team. Both are involved in the current global epidemic. The fact that type L is more widespread suggests that it is “more aggressive” than type S, according to the team.
How does this coronavirus (Covid-19) compare to past respiratory epidemics?
The Spanish flu of 1918 – or the H1N1 virus – remains the most devastating flu pandemic in modern history. The disease has swept the world and is believed to have caused between 50 and 100 million deaths. A cousin of the same virus was also behind the 2009 swine flu epidemic, which reportedly killed up to 575,400 people. Other major influenza outbreaks included the Asian flu in 1957, which killed around two million people, and the Hong Kong flu, which killed one million people 11 years later.
How did the Coronavirus disease outbreak start?
The source of the coronavirus is believed to be a “wet market” in Wuhan which sold both dead and living animals, including fish and birds. These markets present an increased risk of viruses passing from animals to humans, as hygienic standards are difficult to maintain if live animals are kept and slaughtered on site. Typically, they are also densely packed allowing the disease to spread from one species to another.
The animal source of Covid-19 has not yet been identified, but the original host is believed to be bats. Bats were not sold at the Wuhan market but may have infected live chickens or other animals sold there. Bats are host to a wide range of zoonotic viruses, including Ebola, HIV and rabies.That is why US President Donald Trump tells reporter calling coronavirus the ‘Chinese virus’.
How big could the Coronavirus disease pandemic get?
The disease has already spread to Europe, the United States and Southeast Asia and is starting to take its toll in Africa, Latin America and South America. The World Health Organization is particularly concerned about the ability of the world’s poorest countries to control the disease.
What are the symptoms of Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19)?
Doctors are learning new things about this virus every day. So far, we know that COVID-19 may initially cause no symptoms in some people. You can carry the virus for 2 days or up to 2 weeks before you notice symptoms.
Some common symptoms that have been specifically linked to COVID-19 include:
• shortness of breath
• a cough that becomes more severe over time
• a low intensity fever that gradually increases in temperature
Less common symptoms include:
• repeated tremors with chills
• sore throat
• muscle aches and pains
• loss of taste
• loss of odor
These symptoms may become more severe in some people. Call emergency medical services if you or someone you care for has any of the following symptoms:
• difficulty in breathing
• blue lips or face
• persistent pain or pressure in the chest
• excessive drowsiness
The full list of symptoms is still being studied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Coronavirus Symptoms Compared to Other Common Conditions
|Shortness of breath
|Aches & Pains
How long do coronavirus (Covid-19)symptoms last?
Because Covid-19 is so new there is a good deal of uncertainty around this. One detailed medical report of a waitress on the Diamond Princess cruise ship – a disease hotspot – who had a mild form of the disease showed that she displayed symptoms for 10 days. And a study of nine German patients who were also only mildly affected showed that they displayed symptoms for between eight and 11 days.
However, anecdotal reports on social media show that people can feel extreme fatigue for several days after more obvious symptoms such as cough and fever have subsided. People with more severe forms of the disease will take longer to recover – a study of 138 patients who were hospitalized in China showed that some patients were in hospital for up to two weeks, although the average stay was 10 days.
What is the incubation period in Covid-19 disease?
Meaning of incubation period: the period between exposure to an infection and the appearance of the first symptoms
Symptoms are thought to appear between two and 10 days after getting the virus, but this can last up to 24 days. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing special treatment. However, about one in six (16%) fall seriously ill and have trouble breathing. Seniors and those with underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart problems, lung problems or diabetes are more likely to develop serious illness.
When should I seek medical help?
If you have difficulty in breathing – for example, if you breathe hard and quickly, you should see a doctor. But don’t go to a general practitioner instead contact local government helpline number of your area .
If you have a fever and cough – the main early symptoms of coronavirus – the government now advises you to isolate yourself for seven days. However, if you live with other people, you and the people you live with will have to isolate yourself for 14 days. This will help protect others. If you live alone, ask neighbors, friends and family to help you get what you need. If your symptoms get worse during home isolation or don’t improve after seven days, contact local government helpline number of your area.
How to ‘self-isolate’ if you think you might have coronavirus
If you think you have the virus, try to isolate yourself or quarantine yourself. This means that you must:
• Stay at home
• Do not go to work and other public places
• Do not use public transport and taxis
• Bring your friends and family to deliver food, medicine, etc. rather than going to the stores
How is coronavirus spread and how can I protect myself?
The most important advice is to stay at home and continue to wash your hands.
Like cold and flu viruses, the new virus is spread by droplets when a person coughs or sneezes. The droplets travel up to three meters, landing on surfaces which are then touched by others and spread further.
People get the virus when their infected hands touch the mouth, nose or eyes.
It follows that the most important thing you can do to protect yourself is to keep your hands clean by washing them frequently with soap and water or hand sanitizer.
Also try to avoid touching your mouth, nose or eyes with unwashed hands – which we all do subconsciously on average about 15 times an hour.
Other tips include:
• Always carry a hand sanitizer to facilitate frequent hand cleaning
• Always wash your hands before eating or touching your face
• Be especially careful when touching things, then touch your face
• Sneeze or cough in the crook of your elbow to prevent your hands from being contaminated
• Take disposable handkerchiefs with you, cover your nose and mouth when you cough or sneeze and carefully dispose of the handkerchief (grab it, throw it away, kill it)
• If you have to go to work, remember the rules of social distancing and stay away from people
• Wash your hands when entering after your exit
• Regularly clean not only your hands but also commonly used surfaces and devices that you touch or handle
What treatments are available for a Covid-19 Patient?
There is currently no treatment specifically approved for COVID-19, and no cure for an infection, although treatments and vaccines are currently under study.
Instead, treatment focuses on managing symptoms while the virus is running its course.
Seek medical help if you think you have COVID-19. Your doctor will recommend treatment for any symptoms or complications that develop and tell you if you need emergency treatment.
Other coronaviruses like SARS and MERS are also treated by managing symptoms. In some cases, experimental treatments are tested to see their effectiveness.
Examples of therapies used for these diseases include:
• antiviral or retroviral drugs
• respiratory support, such as mechanical ventilation
• steroids to reduce lung swelling
• blood plasma transfusions
Should you wear a mask?
If you are in a public place where it is difficult to follow physical distance guidelines, the CDC Trusted source recommends that you wear a cloth face mask that covers your mouth and nose.
When worn correctly and by large percentages of the public, these masks can help slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
In fact, they can block the respiratory droplets of people who may be asymptomatic or of people who have the virus but who have not been diagnosed.
Respiratory droplets get into the air when you:
You can create your own mask using basic materials such as:
• a bandana
• a T-shirt
• cotton fabric
The CDC provides reliable source instructions for making a mask with scissors or with a sewing machine.
Cloth masks are preferred for the general public, as other types of masks should be reserved for healthcare professionals.
It is essential to keep the mask clean. Wash it every time you use it. Avoid touching the front of it with your hands. Also try to avoid touching your mouth, nose and eyes when removing it.
This prevents you from eventually transferring the virus from a mask to your hands and from your hands to your face.
Keep in mind that wearing a mask does not replace other preventive measures, such as frequent hand washing and physical distance. They are all important.
Some people should not wear face masks, including:
• children under 2 years old
• people who have trouble breathing
• people who cannot remove their own mask
Is it just droplets from the nose and mouth that spread the new virus?
Probably not, but they are by far the most common risk. The NHS and WHO advise doctors that the virus is also likely to be contained in other bodily secretions, including blood, feces and urine. Again, hand and surface hygiene is the key.
How can I protect my family, especially children?
Children are a major vector for the spread of droplet viruses because they interact so physically with each other and are not the best at keeping themselves clean. The virus seems to affect older people more often, but children can be infected and they can be seriously ill, the government warns. However, you can significantly reduce the risk that children have of spreading or catching viruses by:
- Explain to them how germs spread and the importance of good hand and face hygiene
- Ensure that they respect the rules of social isolation so as not to meet up with friends, even if they are bored
- Keep household surfaces clean, especially kitchens, bathrooms, door handles and light switches
- Use clean or disposable cloths to wipe surfaces so as not to transfer germs from one surface to another
- Give everyone their own towel and make sure they don’t share toothbrushes, etc.
- Keep your home dry and airy (insects thrive in moldy environments) The government advises people to stay at home and practice social distancing. Stay at least three meters from other people. Do not go to work unless it is essential.
Are some groups of people more at risk than others?
Data from China suggests that people of all ages are at risk of contracting the virus, although the elderly are more likely to develop serious illness.
People with a reduced chance of surviving pneumonia include:
• Those over 65
• Children under two years old
• People with underlying health problems or a weakened immune system
Of the 425 first confirmed deaths in mainland China, 80% were of people over the age of 60 and 75% suffered from some form of underlying disease.
However, young people are not “invincible” as warned by WHO and they must follow official advice.
Is there a vaccine for coronavirus?
There is currently no vaccine, but scientists around the world are rushing to produce one thanks to China’s rapid sharing of the virus’s genetic code.
However, any potential vaccine will not be available for a year and will likely be given to the health workers most at risk of getting the virus first. In addition, researchers in China believe the virus may have mutated into two strains, one of which is very aggressive, making it more difficult to find a vaccine.
For the time being, this is a case of confinement and an increase in hospital capacity to treat patients. The British government’s action plan on conornaviruses aims to delay and flatten the epidemic curve of the disease to prevent the NHS from being overwhelmed as happened in Wuhan.
The ability to treat patients requiring hospital care is already becoming a major challenge for the NHS – this is what has caused the government to lock in. Do your part to help slow the epidemic by following the tips above.
Why is a coronavirus vaccine important?
The virus is easily spread and the majority of the world’s population is still vulnerable to it. A vaccine would provide some protection by training people’s immune systems to fight the virus so they don’t get sick.
This would allow the locks to be lifted more securely and to reduce social distance.
What sort of progress is being made?
Research is taking place at breakneck speed. Around 80 groups around the world are researching vaccines, and some are currently starting clinical trials.
- The first data from human trials seem positive showing that the first eight patients have all produced antibodies which could neutralize the virus.
- At Oxford, the first human trial in Europe started with more than 800 recruits and signed an agreement with AstraZeneca to provide 100 million doses (30 million for the UK) if it works.
- The pharmaceutical giants Sanofi and GSK have teamed up to develop a vaccine
- Australian scientists have started to inject ferrets with two potential vaccines. This is the first comprehensive pre-clinical trial involving animals, and researchers hope to test humans by the end of April.
However, no-one know how effective any of these vaccines will be.
When will we have a coronavirus vaccine?
A vaccine to develop, would in general take some years or it may take decades, to develop. Researchers developing the coronavirus vaccine are putting the same amount of effort to make it in just a few months, and most experts believe a vaccine will likely be available by mid of 2021.
But the fact is that there is already four coronaviruses already circulating in humans. They cause common cold symptoms and we don’t have vaccines for any of them.
How do you create a vaccine?
Vaccines safely transmit viruses or bacteria (or even small parts of them) to the immune system. The body’s Immune System recognize them as an invader and learn to fight them. Then, if the body is actually exposed, it already knows what to do.
The main method of vaccination for decades has been to use the original virus. The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is made using weakened viruses that cannot cause full infection. The seasonal flu vaccine takes the main strains of flu around and completely deactivates them.
Work on a new coronavirus vaccine uses more recent and less tested approaches called “plug and play” vaccines. Because we know the genetic code for the new coronavirus, Sars-CoV-2, we have the complete plan to build it. Oxford researchers have placed small sections of his genetic code in a harmless virus that infects chimpanzees. They hope they have developed a safe virus that resembles the coronavirus enough to produce an immune response. Other groups use pieces of raw genetic code (DNA or RNA depending on the approach) which, once injected into the body, should start to produce pieces of viral proteins that the immune system can again learn to fight.
Would a vaccine protect people of all ages?
It will almost inevitably be less effective in the elderly, since older immune systems do not respond as well to vaccination. We see this with the annual flu vaccine. It may be possible to overcome this by administering multiple doses or by giving it alongside a chemical (called an adjuvant) that boosts the immune system.
What is the difference between a coronavirus and a flu virus?
Coronaviruses and flu viruses can cause similar symptoms, but genetically they are very different.
Coronaviruses start in animals, so humans have no natural immunity. “Influenza viruses incubate very quickly – you tend to have symptoms two to three days after being infected, but coronaviruses take much longer,” says Professor Neil Ferguson, epidemic scientist at Imperial College from London. “[With] the flu virus, you become immune, but there are many different viruses circulating. Coronaviruses do not evolve in the same way as influenza, with many different strains, but also our body does not generate very good immunity. “
What is a hantavirus?
A man in China died of a hantavirus in March 2020, a disease transmitted by rats and other rodents. There are different types of hantavirus depending on where you live in the world and the latest data from the European Centers for Disease Control shows that there were around 4000 cases in Europe in 2017, with a death rate of around 0.5%. The disease spreads through the urine, feces or saliva of infected rodents and does not spread from person to person. Agricultural and forestry workers are most at risk and 70% of cases in Europe in 2017 occurred in Germany and France.
Covid-19 & Economic Crises
The coronavirus pandemic is slowing global trade. The coronavirus is strangling the global economy.
Within weeks, the highly contagious disease has pushed the world to the brink of a deeper recession than the 2008 financial crisis. But many of the world’s largest economies are taking extraordinary steps to propel them through the crisis.
The depth and duration of the recession will depend on many factors, including the behavior of the virus itself, public health responses and economic interventions. “We anticipate the worst economic impact since the Great Depression,” said Kristalina Georgieva, managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Some are of the view that the most major economies have entered into a “sharp downturn.” The World Trade Organization, for its part, predicts that almost all regions of the world will experience double-digit trade declines this year, with North American and Asian exporters being the hardest hit.
Billions of people around the world remain under some type of lockdown. The major industries, particularly airlines and other travel-related sectors, are on the verge of bankruptcy. Millions of People has lost their jobs and there is no hope to get any job in near future.
The hope is that economies can shut down without causing extreme disruptions, such as generalized business failures or unemployment, and then get back on track quickly after the pandemic ends.